THE KURDISH COMMUNITY IN LEBANON Lokman I. Meho* and Farah W. Kawtharani   This paper provides a general background of the Kurdish community in Lebanon, including their history, geography, ethno-linguistic diversity, citizenship and socioeconomic status, and associational organization. The paper also discusses the reasons why Kurds are not well integrated into the Lebanese...

The Origin of Kurds Ferdinand Hennerbichler Received February 28th, 2012; revised March 30th, 2012; accepted April 12th, 2012 Kurds are traditionally regarded as Iranians and of Iranian origin, and therefore as Indo-Europeans, mainly, because they speak Iranian. This hypothesis is largely based on linguistic considerations and was predominantly...

Kar-daKI-ka 21st ce. B.C.E. Karda Land of Valiant Mountain People Central Zagros East Terminological Analysis   Ferdinand Hennerbichler   Abstract The toponym “kar-daKI-ka” (“ma-da kar-daKI-ka”) means land of “Karda”, which derives most likely out of Akkadian “qarda” (“qurda”) for heroic, brave, valiant, and warlike (mountain) people. It was geographically located in ancient heartlands of...

Ancient Kurdish Clan (Tribe) Mamykan / Mamikonean    Latif Mammad     Armenian sources (Favstos Buzand. IV - 27,31,36,39; “The History of Armenia” by M. Khorensky; N. Adonts [1]) report on the princely clan Mamikoneans, whose ancestral area was considered Tayk. Sources emphasize that the Mamikonean's principalities along with the...

Indo-European homeland and migrations: half a century of studies and discussions     Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze & Vyacheslav V. Ivanov     The problem of the initial place from which the original Indo- European dialects spread over Eurasia has been studied by several generations of scholars. Few alternative points of view...