Kar-daKI-ka 21st ce. B.C.E. Karda Land of Valiant Mountain People Central Zagros East Terminological Analysis   Ferdinand Hennerbichler   Abstract The toponym “kar-daKI-ka” (“ma-da kar-daKI-ka”) means land of “Karda”, which derives most likely out of Akkadian “qarda” (“qurda”) for heroic, brave, valiant, and warlike (mountain) people. It was geographically located in ancient heartlands of...

Kurdistan: A new dawn breaks for Near eastern archaeology   John MacGinnis  -  Konstantinos Kopanias  The Kurdish Autonomous Region in north-east Iraq is a land of craggy peaks, gushing rivers, and extraordinary archaeology. Yet, for decades, dictatorship and military conflict has kept the area off-limits. Now, as John MacGinnis and...

Ancient Kurdish Clan (Tribe) Mamykan / Mamikonean    Latif Mammad     Armenian sources (Favstos Buzand. IV - 27,31,36,39; “The History of Armenia” by M. Khorensky; N. Adonts [1]) report on the princely clan Mamikoneans, whose ancestral area was considered Tayk. Sources emphasize that the Mamikonean's principalities along with the...

Indo-European homeland and migrations: half a century of studies and discussions     Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze & Vyacheslav V. Ivanov     The problem of the initial place from which the original Indo- European dialects spread over Eurasia has been studied by several generations of scholars. Few alternative points of view...